The bedside clinical nurse is at the heart of understanding the need for discovering answers to important patient-care questions and should be encouraged by the prof… There are several kinds of reviews: plain literature reviews, systematic reviews, and integrative reviews are the most common. The first step in a literature review is to clearly define the research questions, hypotheses, quality improvement procedures, or a description of the proposed evidence-based practice along with the specific population of interest for the project. Once all useful articles are collected, it is helpful to organize them on a table similar to the one in Table 3. Morning sunlight reduces length of hospitalization in bipolar depression. If no intervention is proposed and the study seeks to determine a relationship between existing phenomena, the "I" refers to the issues at hand. Conclusions are drawn by the investigator, and implications are suggested based on the review. Research methods in educational leadership and management, 90. Rohnert Park, CA 94928 Similar to a basic written literature review, a narrative review typically lacks methodology and an orderly process—meaning it allows author bias. Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Pub. Prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors. before writing your lit review. In the same manner, librarians at local public libraries are often able to provide assistance. [Context Link], LoBiondo-Wood G., Haber J. Asking compelling questions. It will include the author's perspective or point of view on the topic, how they have defined the scope of the topic (including what's not included), and how the review will be organized. Fineout-Overholt E., Stillwell S. B. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International. Because Medical Subject Headings has categorized every standardized heading within its database, it may result in more articles that match the topic (Jaffe & Cowell, 2014). Limitations to the current research are also noted. This article provides nursing professional development specialists with a concise resource on conducting literature reviews: the essential first step of a research project, quality improvement initiative, or the implementation of evidence-based practice. B., Schachter L. M., O'Brien P. E., Jones K., Grima M., Lambert G., Naughton M. T. ( 2012). Journal of Nursing Administration, 35( 1), 35-40. Other times, the literature review will reveal that high-quality evidence for practice change exists, but in a population or setting different from the one in which the nurse is seeking to implement the new protocol. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. These are a result of research and systematic reviews and make evidence available nationwide (NICE, 2002). Health sciences literature review made easy. Nursing researchers' level of evidence on ethics and their orientation to high research design will shed light on uncertain and controversial aspects of the subject. The ethics of using quality improvement methods in health care. The literature review: Six steps to success. It forms a foundation for the subsequent research that an author of nursing research work will perform to bolster on the existing and justifies the importance of the new study. Although over 14 types of reviews have been identiﬁed,1 literature reviews can be broadly divided into narrative (descriptive) The Evidence Matrix can help you organize your research before writing your lit review. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.sonoma.idm.oclc.org/ps/i.do?p=HRCA&sw=w&u=sonomacsu&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA422059606&asid=27e45873fddc413ac1bebbc129f7649c This article explores how to search and critique the research literature. Polit D. F., Beck C. T. ( 2013). However, most of such activities are based on the previous studies and researches, conducted before. 1801 East Cotati Ave Example of a literature review at the beginning of an article: It can point out overall trends, conflicts in methodology or conclusions, and gaps in the research. A narrative, or expert, review typically is based on an author’s subjective selection of published articles addressing a specific question with a summary of findings and an implicit conclusion. It was a great pleasure to work with you! Preparing literature reviews: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.). The quality of the evidence of published research is usually categorized as high, good, or low, and determining quality of evidence usually takes more time than determining the level of strength (Newhouse et al., 2005). [Context Link]. In writing the literature review, your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. However, it does help to understand the differences in the rigor of the studies according to level. Research would be determined to be low quality if it had an insufficient description of the research design and methods, inadequate sample size, and inconsistent and nonappropriate implications and conclusions (Newhouse et al., 2005). Consulting with colleagues who understand the topic and population of interest to get new search words and ideas may be helpful. I Importance Of Literature Review In Nursing Research did not find any mistakes. Research uses the steps of the scientific method to conduct a systematic, rigorous, investigation to answer questions and contribute to the knowledge of the science that will be useful for practice (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2013). Annals of Internal Medicine, 146( 9), 666-673. This landmark annual review has provided nearly three decades of knowledge, insight, and research on topics critical to nurses everywhere. A literature review can be a short introductory section of a research article or a report or policy paper that focuses on recent research. An advanced-level literature review shows how prior research is linked to a new project, ... A good literature review lays the foundation for the importance of your stated problem and research question. For example, a nurse may seek to begin a quality improvement project regarding a new practice to decrease medication errors by providing undisturbed time for nurses when retrieving medications; however, it may be that medication errors in past studies increased for other reasons and the nurse did not know this potential hazard because no thorough investigation of the current literature was done. Without a full understanding, however, of what others have contributed to the scientific literature, the correct and most useful research question cannot be asked, the most effective quality improvement project cannot be done, and there can be no true evidence-based practice. For any project, "P" must be identified as the specific population of concern. Articles obtained through the literature search should be saved in electronic files and sorted by key words, population, published year, or other important factors. All rights reserved. In this case, a translation may or may not be easily made, depending on how much the population and setting differs, and instead of implementing new practice, a new research study may be in order. Measuring the outcomes is the "O" and represents the methods used to measure the outcomes of interest. For the most current findings, the search should be limited to the most recent articles, generally those published in the past 5 years (Garrard, 2013). It is critically important for the nurse to understand the evidence in evidence-based practice. Wilson, J. L. (2016). The ethical framework of research practice. Without removing those articles that are not useful, confusion can easily set in when attempting to reread, cite, or reference the appropriate work. A literature review provides an overview of previous research on a topic that critically evaluates, classifies, and compares what has already been published on a particular topic. A literature review is that part of the dissertation that does not give provide the reader with new information but rather arranges the existing one systematically and states opinions regarding it. One technique is called Boolean and is the method of using "and," "or," and "not" between key words to make a search more narrow or broad (Jaffe & Cowell, 2014). Literature reviews aim to answer focused questions to: inform professionals and patients of the best available evidence when making healthcare decisions; influence policy; and identify future research priorities. Surgical vs conventional therapy for weight loss treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: A randomized controlled trial. Literature reviews also provide a firm background for a research papers investigation. A well-done literature review arms the nurse with the justification for a project and the confidence for approaching the stakeholders who must approve and fund work in the institution. Sign in, July/August 2015, Volume 31 Number 4 , p 191 - 196. (Eds.). Noting gaps in the research that were identified by the author of the article can be very helpful in furthering the scope of the investigation. In A. R. Briggs, M Morrison, M. Coleman (Eds. Wilson, J. L. (2016). Embarking on a research project is the most commonly understood reason for conducting a literature review. (Eds.). The format is usually a bibliographic essay; sources are briefly cited within the body of the essay, with full bibliographic citations at the end. Reason #2: To Justify Your Research. Busher H., James N. ( 2012). Already a member? Literature Review Skills The nursing profession has a rich history of using research in practice. In fact, it may be a breach of ethics to embark on a quality improvement project without a thorough review of the literature. Should any additional questions arise during the course of the research, the researcher will know which experts to consult in order to quickly clear up those questions. The conclusion will summarize the main findings, make clear how this review of the literature supports (or not) the research to follow, and may point the direction for further research. [Context Link], Jaffe R., Cowell J. M. ( 2014). This involves explaining how to generate a robust literature review question, search databases in the most effective manner and produce a robust analysis of the literature. Within these groups, the author can then discuss the merits of each article and analyze and compare the importance of each article to similar ones. © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries. The literature review also plays a big role in justifying your study and setting your research question. This is a professional service. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. This is because examining past research allows you to identify gaps in the literature, which you can then attempt to fill or address with your own work. An exploration of bullying behaviours in nursing: a review of the literature. Nursing's social policy statement: The essence of the profession. Some conducted studies are unique and have experimental nature. Changing word tenses, consulting a thesaurus, and trying words in the search engines with similar meanings may also be useful tactics. Evidence-based practice: A practical approach to implementation. Table 2 gives an example of how a list of key words may be organized for a proposed project looking at the relationships among music, pain, and anxiety. Each block in the table must not be filled in; the number of words in each category will depend on the project. Unlike a research project, a review of current literature on the proposed new practice may not always be considered necessary by the nurse investigator, because it may be assumed that, if a practice is being done elsewhere, then it must be scientifically sound; however, this is not always the case. Running head: Role of Literature Review in the Research Process 3 Role of Literature Review in the Research Process Any research is conducted to achieve certain objectives and purposes. It may help to broaden the population of interest or the outcome measures to see if similar works are found slightly outside the specific domain of interest. Essentials of nursing research. † It shows the originality and relevance of your research problem. The importance of literature review to scientific research can be condensed into its analytical feature. Norma… common theoretical frameworks? British Journal Of Nursing, 25(6), 303-306. There are different techniques for using key words for online literature searches. Whichever method is chosen, it is important to read through each article, beginning with the abstract, to search for its applicability to the project and discard (whether physically or electronically) those that are not pertinent to the project. The professional practice of nursing is enhanced by the discoveries of research and clinical investigations led by nurses. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Even if a similar project at another institution or in another practice setting is known to be deemed successful but was not yet published, which is often the case with quality improvement initiatives, caution should be taken if current, good quality, peer-reviewed literature could not be found to support the practice. 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If greater than usual risks were identified, the project should be proposed as a research study. Literature review work that has already been done by authors of manuscripts and reviews found in journals and books may also provide pertinent articles. It allows the author to synthesize and place into context the research and scholarly literature relevant to the topic. The importanceof literature reviewsishighlighted bythe dedication of this entire issue to reviews. Approaches for improving literature review methods. [Context Link]. Therefore, there was a gap in the scientific knowledge base regarding a specific population, and the literature review made it clear to stakeholders that her research project needed to go forward. Rating scales have been published that describe the levels of strength and quality of evidence (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2014; Newhouse, Dearholt, Poe, Pugh, & White, 2005). COVID-19 transmission: Is this virus airborne, or not? Use of this feed is for personal non-commercial use only. A literature review helps to map different the different approaches to a particular question while revealing the patterns. For additional examples, see: Galvan, J., Galvan, M., & ProQuest. Understanding the differences between the three types of investigative projects will inform and guide the nurse investigator in conducting the literature review. There is no conflict of interest in this literature review. A synthesis of current, relevant published literature provides the most current published information necessary so that the investigators' time, money, and often, enthusiasm are not wasted on answers to questions that have already been recently discovered. [Context Link], Fink A. Journal of Affective Disorders, 62, 221-223. ( 2014). It forms the foundation for the author’s subsequent research and justifies the significance of the new investigation. Use of this feed is for personal non-commercial use only. It is also helpful to read published reviews of literature to see how the information that is found by other authors is synthesized and how conclusions are drawn. The literature search begins by putting the key words from the PICOT list together in different combinations (not all words go into a search at the same time) and then using them to explore several commonly used online search engines such as http://www.pubmed.gov, http://www.scholar.google.com, http://www.google.com, http://www.search.proquest.com/index, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature through EBSCO publishing at http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/cinahl-plus-with-full-text. An exploration of bullying behaviours in nursing: a review of the literature. Generally between 3 and 10 recently published articles will be sufficient, but that is only a guideline. Ethical consideration: Since this was a systematic review, no ethical approval was required. ( 2013). [Context Link]. Literature review observes about the work that it is doing, is repeating unintentionally. PICOT stands for Population, Intervention (or Issue), Correlation (or Comparison), Outcome, and Time it takes to achieve outcomes (Fineout-Overholt & Stillwell, 2014). A nurse may propose that a better practice idea based on expertise and insight found in other settings should be implemented with outcomes being measured for effectiveness in a certain patient population, thus creating a quality improvement project (Lynn et al., 2007). Moreover, because investigative work always begins by looking at past scientific contributions, successes, and challenges to the clinical subject at hand, the NPD specialist must know how to help nurses begin their investigative projects with a thorough review of the literature. If there seems to be a scarcity on the subject matter, it may indicate that either the search criteria are too narrow and need to be broader, or that little has been studied on the topic of interest. The clearly written literature review will then serve as a basis for the background section of the research proposal, the argument for the need to conduct a quality improvement project, or the rationale for implementing new evidence-based practice. Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (2nd ed.). However, the most recently published work will inform the project of the state of the current science. The literature review cannot be overlooked because it sets the foundation for an investigative project's ethical implementation and subsequent success. (See Lit Review tab for more info.) An example of Level 4-5 strength is nonresearch case-studies, quality reports, or opinion-based articles; Level 3 is usually a report of nonexperimental or qualitative research; Level 2 encompasses quasiexperimental research; and Level 1 are reports of experimental randomized controlled trials or meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (Newhouse et al., 2005). There should be a pause before implementation of what appears to be evidence-based practice until a thorough review and critique of the literature can be done (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2013). Instead of a long summary of the research, your review should add value to the literature through the identification of important research gaps, controversies and directions for future research. Writing a literature review for nursing is an excellent way to become acquainted with a specific area of research. Part 2 Locate and read two articles of original research from at least two different sources mentioned in the text, such as … Once the review is completed, the quality improvement initiative can begin using a structured approach with the assurance that current evidence for the new practice has been reviewed, and risks have been determined to be no greater than usual care for patients at the institution. For researchers, the depth and scope of the literature review stresses the integrity of the writer in his or her field. When conducting research, a literature review is an essential part of the project because it covers all previous research done on the topic and sets the platform on which the current research is based. No new research can be taken seriously without first reviewing the … The correlation (or comparison) being made is the "C" and represents what the investigator is looking for such as the difference between those receiving the intervention and the control group or a correlation (relationship) between phenomena. [Context Link], Conn V. S., Isaramalai S. A., Rath S., Jantarakupt P., Wadhawan R., Dash Y. It is prudent to keep searching until no new information is found. Often, nurses who are extremely proficient clinically become interested in taking on an investigative project, but may shy away from a knowledge-advancing venture because of uncertainty about how to conduct a literature review. A literature review in any field is essential as it offers a comprehensive overview and recapitulation on the given scholarship from past to present, giving the reader a sense of focus as to which direction your new research is headed (See Reference 3). [Context Link]. Machi L. A., McEvoy B. T. ( 2012). Many investigators choose to print out every article, highlight important information using colored pens, sort articles according to similar characteristics, and create piles of articles according to topic. Danger exists that a practice, although in vogue elsewhere, may or may not have any evidential base and may cause harm. [Context Link], Newhouse R., Dearholt S., Poe S., Pugh L. C., White K. M. ( 2005). A literature review should try to answer questions such as. If the project involves a quality improvement course and little can be found to support the quality improvement practice under consideration, it may indicate that the new improvement project may have little substantiation for implementation and perhaps a research project would be better suited to investigate the phenomenon. It provides a broad overview of a selected topic and may include the author’s expert opinions. Thanks for the quality of writing. ), Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Some popular sources for literature review content are journals, speeches, articles, essays or programs. Literature reviews aim to answer focused questions to: inform professionals and patients of the best available evidence when making healthcare decisions; inﬂuence policy; and identify future research priorities. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. Backhaus J., Junghanns K., Hohagen F. ( 2004). Krathwohl, 1988 says Review of literature in any study is not a cup of tea; it requires Assistance with writing the literature review can be found in many books, such as those listed in Table 1. Benedetti F., Colombo C., Barbini B., Campori E., Smeraldi E. ( 2001). † It justiﬂes your proposed methodology. Skillfully critiquing published research may be the most intimidating part of preparing the literature review and does indeed take time to learn. The list of references will include full citations for all of the items mentioned in the literature review. INTRODUCTION Review of literature is one of the most importantsteps in the research process. It is an account of what is already known about aparticular phenomenon. The main purpose of literature review is to conveyto the readers about the work already done & theknowledge & ideas that have been alreadyestablished on a particular topic of research. Literature review is a laborious task, … If a thorough review and critique of the literature is lacking, investigative projects may suffer in scope and rigor, resulting in wasted time, duplication of efforts, or risky and unethical practice (Busher & James, 2012). Professional clinical nurses are challenged to continually expand their knowledge and devise creative approaches to solving problems that result in better care for their patients (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2013). In many organizations, it is the responsibility of the nursing professional development (NPD) specialist to encourage and educate the clinical nurse in investigative pursuits. An important requirement for an article that will be part of the scientific literature review, is that the article must be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, meaning that the publication accepts manuscripts for print based on a review of experts in their field of research (Fink, 2014). In terms of rigour, if viewed as a continuum, narrative and systematic reviews … It helps map the different approaches to a given question and reveals patterns. PICOT, a commonly used acronym for writing research questions, is useful for organizing all types of projects when putting together a plan to search the literature. For example, a nurse at a large academic medical center was interested in investigating a new intervention on her unit to prevent falls, and discovered through the literature review that a similar intervention had already been tried but not in her population of interest. Review Grove, Gray, & Burns Chapter 6The post Importance of Literature Review In Research Study first appeared on Submit Your Essays.Importance of Literature Review In Research Study was first posted on November 17, 2020 at 10:11 am.©2019 "Submit Your Assignment". ), Research methods in educational leadership and management. Sometimes, a thorough review of the literature will indicate that there is simply no high-level, quality research sufficient enough to justify a change in practice. 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