Realising the importance of its central situation, Akbar made it his capital and arrived in Agra in 1558. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. He expressed- “A monarch should be ever intent on conquest, otherwise his enemies rise in arms against him.” Akbar, therefore, engaged himself in wars of […] In the Panch Mahal built for taking the air, all the types of pillars used in various temples were employed to support flat roofs. Political. They acquired stability and maturity and some of the finest lyrical poetry was produced during this period. 400. The Hindus had their primary schools attached to the temples. Persian was the language of Akbar’s court and of high culture. Under his rein, buildings … The dynasty began as a Sufi order but evolved into a major gunpowder empire. Although Babur was born in Ferghana (in modern day Uzbekistan), it was the accomplishments of direct ancestor, Timur, that inspired him to head south to invade the Indian subcontinent. The basic course of study at the primary standard was the Quran which every child had to learn by rote. The high nobles and other courtiers also attempted to work on the royal work on the royal example. Mughal Empire: Akbar (1556-1605) AKA “Great One” b/c he added more territory than … Most of the women did not get an opportunity to read beyond the primary standard and it was only the few nobles and rich people who were able to engage private tutors for education of their daughters at home. Under Akbar, European painting was introduced at the court by the Portuguese priests. The Sikhs disagreed with Akbar's policies on religious tolerance. The subjects of study in all these Hindu centers of study were grammar, logic, philosophy, history, poetry, astronomy, astrology, medicine including veterinary science and mathematics also including study of physics and chemistry. 100. Bernier states, “Banaras is kind of university; but it has no college or regular classes as in our universities, but resembles rather the school of the ancients, the masters being spread over different parts of the town in private houses”. The Mughal Empire Under Akbar . He wrote his biography, Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri himself by for the first seventeen years of his rule and got prepared the rest of it Mautmid Khan. 2. Akbar himself was not educated but he created those circumstances which helped in the growth of literature during the period of his rule. Yet, good works produced by many scholars in Persian even afterwards. Privacy Policy3. Akbar appoints rajputs as officers in Mughal army. 18.2 cultural blending the safavid empire 1. The double dome was another feature of this building. What did Mehmed II do after he conquered Constantinople? God is no partisan of tongues. A leader of the Mughal Empire who practiced religious tolerance by marrying a Hindu princess. The Mughal princesses Salima Sultana and Zib-un-Nisa had built their own libraries. The Turks of Anatolia were primarily Christian. Hindi remains one of the most widely … Safavid Iran 18.2 2. Who were the Safavids? Cultural Blending: Case Study: The Safavid Empire Key Terms and People Safavid member of a Shi’a Muslim group that built an empire in Persia Isma’il Safavid warrior who seized most of what is now Iran shah Persian title meaning “king ” Shah Abbas leader during the Safavid golden age Esfahan capital city of the Safavid Empire Before You Read In the last lesson, you read about … 4. This Central Asian conqueror interrupted the growth of the Ottoman Empire. 200. a ruler of the Mughal Empire who weakened the empire partly by rigidly enforcing Islamic laws. Akbar gave recognition to scholars of Sanskrit. Among them Faizi, Gizali and Urfi were quite famous. The art of illustrating books, which became refined under his rule, was adapted from Persian art. What four activities often contribute to cultural blending? The Hindus sent their children to the school usually at the age of five but the Muslims performed the maktab ceremony at the auspicious day of the child completing four years, four months and four days. Fortunately for the dynasty, Akbar was aided during his regency by a capable chief minister, Bairam Khan. Thus, in addition to hunting and court scenes, it had paintings on mythological themes, such as the dalliance of Krishna with Radha, or the Barah-masa, that is, the seasons, Ragas (melodies). Disillusioned with orthodox Islam and perhaps hoping to bring about religious unity within his empire, Akbar promulgated Din-i … Still have questions? He repaired an old institution called Dar-ul-Boqa (Abode of Eternity) and found a new college at Delhi. Mahesh Thakur wrote the history of the reign of Akbar, the Jain scholar Padma Sundar wrote Akbarshahi-Srangar-Darpan and the Jain Acharya Siddhachandra Upaddaya wrote Bhanuchandra Charita. 300. Four causes of cultural blending in the Safavid Empire are; migration, pursuit of religious freedom or conversion, trade, and conquest. This Shi'a warrior led the Safavids to conquer what is now Iran. Cultural Blending. He built the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Provide an example to support your answer. Not much was done concerning translation work but a few original works of repute were written during the period of his rule. Safavid. The Sikhs defend Khusrau in his Thus, the Persian and the … In fact, use of running water even in their palaces and pleasure resorts was a special feature of the Mughals. Built atop a hill, along with a large artificial lake, it included many buildings in the style of Gujarat and Bengal. The army of Christian northerners were modeled after Ottoman janissaries, shown in Legal reforms, architecture, art, literature. Humayun wrote a few verses. Case Study: Cultural Blending Section 2 (pages 78–81) 12. A Shi’a brotherhood that took over Iran in the 1400s Root of modern Iran today Oversaw much cultural blending Constantly at war with Sunni Ottomans 3. Cultural Blending is caused by migration, pursuit of religious freedom, trade, and conquest. 6. A Flowering of CultureAs Akbar extended the Mughal Empire, he welcomed influences from the many cultures in the empire. Which emperor laid the foundation for the Muhgal Emperor? Akbar's policy of blending produced two new languages, Hindi and Urdu. The textbook also says, “Akbar was a genius at cultural blending (pg 157). Islamic warriors in the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans treated non-Muslims well, allowing them to practice their own religion, although they did put a tax on them. Obviously, their institutions of higher learning were also located separately and the subjects of their research and higher studies were also different. Although not many buildings were put up by Aurangzeb who was economic-minded, the Mughal architectural traditions based on a combination of Hindu and Turko-lranian forms and decorative designs, continued without a break into the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Examples of Cultural Blending in the Safavid Empire Military Two armies were created by Shah Abbas. Cultural Blending Language: Persian, however when the area converted to Islam a # of Arabic words were introduced. This devise, borrowed from Iran, became feature in Mughal buildings later. 5. The Sikhs defend Khusrau in his rebel- Akbar The Great succeeded his father Humayun at the age of thirteen in 1556 and ruled until 1605. ADVERTISEMENTS: Akbar was an imperialist. All the Mughal emperors were great patrons of learning and gave their full encouragement to the spread of education in their dominions. Akbar prohibits inheritance of land granted to bureaucrats. Mughal Empire: Babur (1494-1530) 11 yrs old, inherited kingdom that is now Uzbekistan and Tajikistan Elders took it away & drove him S. 1526: Raised army & conquered the Turkish Muslims in Delhi, India . Aurangzeb discouraged writings of history. Mughal Painting (School from Persian Influence): This school had been developed during the period of Akbar. Kashmir was also a place of attraction for scholars because of its pleasant climate and beautiful environment. Yet as compared to the age of the Delhi sultanate, Sanskrit literature made good progress during the period. The Gujarat style of architecture is used most widely in the palace built probably for his Rajput wife or wives. 5. Along with the education of men, the education of the women did not obtain proper priority during the Mughal period. Christian boys were taken as slaves, converted to Islam, and turned into warriors and government officials as part of this Ottoman policy. The University of Mithila, however, continued to be a prominent centre of learning during the Mughal period. Akbar's successors did not continue his policy of religious toleration, which led to conflict between Hindus and Muslims. Golden Age 1628-1658 He commissioned the translations of the great Indian classics from Sanskrit into Persian. A leading Mughal noble, Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan, produced a fine blend of Bhakti poetry with Persian ideas of life and human relations. Mosque-building also reached its climax under Shah Jahan, the two most noteworthy ones being the Moti Masjid in the Agra fort built like the Taj entirely in marble, and the other the Jama Masjid in the Agra fort built like the Taj entirely in marble, and the other the Jama Masjid at Delhi built in red sandstone. Thus, the Persian and the Hindi literary traditions began to influence each other. The Golden Age of Akbar Akbar was a Muslim who firmly defended religious freedom “His aim was to achieve a Hindu-Muslim equilibrium based on the brotherhood of mankind with no one religion holding the ultimate truth” These religions co-existed: Islam Hindu Jain Sikh (Scattered Christian and Jewish communities on the coast) Akbar . 200. a system … This country is such a hit on the list of vacation seekers because, here the traditional and contemporary go hand in hand. His wives were not required to convert to Islam but maintained freedom of worship at court, and from them he produced an heir who was half Muslim Timurid and half Hindu Rajput. Babur was himself a great scholar and public works department (Shuhrat-i-Am) established by him, which, also continued to exist under later Mughal emperors, was on trusted along with other responsibilities to that of building the schools and colleges. The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal dynasties established control over Turkey, Iran, and India respectively, in large part due to a Chinese invention: gunpowder. Mughal painting reached a climax under Jahangir who had a very discriminating eye. Abul Fazl named fifty nine poets at the court of Akbar. Book illustrations became very popular. Among writings on history, Tuzuk-i-Babri written by emperor Babur, Humayuna Nama of Gulbadan Begum, Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari of Abdul Fazl, Tabkhat-i-Akbari of Nizamuddin Ahmad, Tazkirautal-waqiat of Jauhar, Tauja-i-Akbarshahi alias Tarikh-i-Sher Shah of Abbas Sarwani, Tarikh-i- Alfi which covers nearly one thousand years of history of the Islam and was written by the combined efforts of many scholars. 6. Safavid dynasty, ruling dynasty of Iran from 1501 to 1736, known especially for its architectural achievements and its establishment of Twelver Shi‘ism among various ethnic and linguistic groups throughout Iran as a major unifying factor. D. The Sikhs sided with Aurangzeb against his father, Shah Jahan. Forming and Supporting Opinions Under which two rulers discussed in this chapter did the most cultural blending occur? Forming and Supporting Opinions What are some modern examples of cultural blending in art? Disillusioned with orthodox Islam and perhaps hoping to bring about religious unity within his empire, Akbar promulgated Din-i-Ilahi, a syncretic creed derived from Islam, Hinduism, … Culture: Religion. In large part, the successes of the western empires depended on advanced firearms and cannons. Let these earrings of vanity alone. Many texts written in Arabic, Turki and Greek were also translated into Persian during the rule of the Mughal emperors. … Chopra, it was with great difficulty that Mullah Shah Badakshi agreed to take Jahan Ara as his pupil. He frankly declared and desired to pursue the policy of extension of the empire. 2. 3. During Mughal Period music was the sole medium of Hindu-Muslim unity. pursuit of religious converts, trade, and conquest. Of course, Sanskrit continued to receive patronage from Hindu rulers, yet, its progress was checked later on. After completing their study of Quran, the pupils were taught Gulistan and Bostan of Sheikh Sadi and poems of Firdausi. Ambitious building programs and military campaigns produced high taxes, which were unfairly paid by Hindus. Medieval Hindi in the Brij form, that is the dialect spoken in the neighbourhood of Agra, was also patronised by the Mughal emperors and Hindu rulers. That is why the largest number of books on classical Indian music in Persian were written during Aurangzeb’s reign. The artists in Akbar’s atelier were equally proficient at blending elements from Indian, Persian, and Western traditions, while developing a distinct style of their own. The Pahari School continued the Rajasthani styles and played an important role in its development. Some examples of Akbar's policy of fair rule is that he ended the tax that Hindu pilgrims and all non-Muslims had to pay. Babur was very fond of gardens and laid out a few in the neighbourhood of Agra and Lahore. These were no regular examinations for a student to be promoted to the next standard and the teacher was the sole judge to ascertain his suitability for promotion to the higher class. His historian, Abul Fazl, recorded that this was a brick fort known as 'Badalgarh'.It was in a ruined condition and Akbar had it rebuilt with red sandstone from Barauli area Dhaulpur district, in Rajasthan. File Name: Cultural Blending Guided Key.pdf Size: 4904 KB Type: PDF, ePub, eBook: Category: Book … 3. 1. Thus, Alaol composed in Bengali and also translated from Persian. Bible was translated in it. Some of the Mughal gardens, such as the Nishal Bagh in Kashmir, the Shalimar at Lahore, the Pinjore garden in the Punjab foothills, etc., have survived to this day. Many devotional hymns to Rama were also composed and the Ramayana and the Mahabharata translated into the regional languages, especially if they had not been translated earlier. Akbar the Great Ruled with tolerance from 1556-1605, had huge military power, and allowed cultural blending by allowing different religions and removing religious tax (jizya) A dictionary of Persian Sanskrit titled Farsi- Prakash was prepared during his rule. answer choices . To raise money, he taxed people on a percentage of the food they grew. What is Aurangzeb? Which of Isma'il's traits do you think made his such a successful conqueror? Led to the cultural blending in the ottoman empire pursuit of religious freedom, migration and trade Timur the lames military activities affected the growth of the ottoman empire they interrupted its growth Memhed II and Constantinople He opened the city to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds; opens city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims Trending Questions. The empire demonstrated cultural blending from the mix of Europeans, Chinese, and Persians. He patronized scholars of all subjects. Akbar also encouraged the Hindus to join the madarsa and learn Persian, the court language. 15. There are some destinations that you could just pack up … Cultural blending was everywhere: Abbas welcomed artists, poets, & scholars at court . Historical works were written under the patronage of the later Mughals as well as provincial ruler. Image Source: upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Darbarscene.jpg. Akbar's courts at Delhi, Agra, and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts, letters, and learning. The Rajasthan style of painting combined the themes and earlier traditions of western India or Jain school of painting with Mughal forms and styles. Buildings of a similar type were also built in the fort at Agra, though only a few of them have survived. He also gave … Agra was the biggest centre of learning were there were numerous Madarsahs including the college of Jesuits. answer choices . Religion& Ethical Systems: Buddhism practiced by Tibetans in different than Japanese Zen Buddihism Styles of Government: democracy is different per country Racial/Ethnic blending- mestizo: mixed Euro and Indian ancestry in Mexico Arts/Architecture: … Cultural Blending Guided Key. Thatte was equally important and had, according to Hamilton, four hundred colleges. Get your answers by asking now. Akbar Brothers has been Sri Lanka's Leading exporter, supplier and packer of Ceylon Tea for the past 20 years or more and the first ever Sri Lankan tea company to be internationally recognised with ISO 9001 and HACCP quality certifications. Bernier saw a big hall at Banaras University, which was full of books on philosophy, medicine, religion and history etc. Continue his policy of blending produced two new languages and new ideas in art hundred colleges writes. Blending can you find in Akbar 's policies on religious tolerance in sixteenth... 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